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Chemicals Produced in the Gut after Eating Red Meat May Contribute to Heart Disease Risk

Chemicals produced by microbes in the digestive tract may be partly responsible for the increased heart disease risk associated with higher consumption of red meats such as beef and pork, a new study suggests.

Cardiovascular disease – which includes heart attacks and strokes – is the leading cause of death in the U.S. and around the world. As people age, their cardiovascular disease risk increases.

But risks can be lowered by eating a diet emphasizing fruits and vegetables, legumes, nuts, whole grains, lean protein and fish, staying physically active, getting enough sleep, maintaining a healthy body weight, not smoking and properly managing blood pressure, cholesterol and blood sugar levels.

“Most of the focus on red meat intake and health has been around dietary saturated fat and blood cholesterol levels,” study co-author Meng Wang said in a news release. Wang is a postdoctoral fellow at the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University in Boston.

“Based on our findings, novel interventions may be helpful to target the interactions between red meat and the gut microbiome to help us find ways to reduce cardiovascular risk,” she said.

The study was published Monday in the American Heart Association journal Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.

Prior research has shown some chemical byproducts of food digestion, called metabolites, are associated with a higher cardiovascular disease risk. Trimethylamine N-oxide, or TMAO, is a metabolite produced by gut bacteria to help digest red meat. High blood levels of TMAO may be associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and Type 2 diabetes.

In the new study, researchers measured metabolites in the blood samples of nearly 4,000 people in the Cardiovascular Health Study, which investigated risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults age 65 and older.

Study participants, who were an average 73 years old at the study’s onset, were recruited from Sacramento, California; Hagerstown, Maryland; Winston-Salem, North Carolina; and Pittsburgh. They were followed for an average of 12.5 years and in some cases up to 26 years.

Participants answered questionnaires about their dietary habits, including how often they ate foods such as red meat, processed meat, fish, poultry and eggs.

Eating more meat – especially red meat and processed meat – was associated with a higher risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The risk was 22% higher for about every daily serving.

The increase in TMAO and related metabolites associated with eating red meat was responsible for one-tenth of the higher cardiovascular risk, according to the study.

Researchers also found evidence that blood sugar levels and inflammation may play a more important role in linking red meat consumption to cardiovascular risk than blood cholesterol or blood pressure.

The findings suggest a need for more research into the different chemicals that may play a role in red meat consumption, the authors said.

“Research efforts are needed to better understand the potential health effects,” Wang said.

Source: American Heart Association

Infographic: 中国西瓜产量全球第一

Source : 新华网

In Pictures: Food of Alchemist in Copenhagen, Denmark

An Artfully Composed Dining Experience with Innovative Cuisine

No.18 of the World’s 50 Best Restaurants 2022

Infographic: The Most Popular Fast Food in the World

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Source: Business Financing

In Pictures: Food of Nobelhart & Schmutzig in Berlin, Germany

Casual Fine Dining Modern European Cuisine

No.17 of the World’s 50 Best Restaurants 2022

Sarcopenia Reversible by Diet

Ying H Gao-Balch wrote . . . . . . . . .

Sarcopenia is a disease associated with aging. This condition cause loss of muscle mass and strength, which affects balance, and overall ability to perform tasks of daily living. What are the factors to impact on muscle loss? Physiological of change with Aging; like hormone decline, unbalance of muscle anabolism and catabolism, protein requirements change, as well become more sedentary of lifestyle. Long-term inflammatory disease can result in the disruption of the healthy balance between teardown and healing processes, the medical conditions that are causing stress on the body.

Along with Aging, the hormones, cytokines make more human pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, for example, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), Interleukin (IL)-6, and with increasing C-reactive protein, as evidence of systemic inflammation with Aging. More sedentary of lifestyle. Even, periods of decreased activity can become a muscle strength decreases, resulting in more fatigue and making it more challenging to return to regular exercise.

Although some sarcopenias are a natural consequence of Aging, others are preventable. Studies show sarcopenia can be reversed, and muscle loss decreased. A healthy diet and reasonable exercise can reverse sarcopenia, which increases lifespan and improve quality of life.

Three nutrients that fight sarcopenia

First, Protein of intake to digest and absorption with aging-associated with a progressive decline in the sense of test bud, medical conditions with the teeth, gums and swallowing, or increased difficulty shopping and cooking, a diet is providing low calories and low -protein of eating pattern of result in weight loss and diminished muscle mass, lower rates of protein synthesis and whole-body proteolysis in response to an anabolic stimulus. Therefore, protein malnutrition may also play an important role that can make a dramatic difference in muscle function and mass.

The optimal health for older people depends on maintaining muscle mass, which requires higher than minimal amounts of dietary protein. Consuming enough dietary protein directly signals muscle tissue to grow and strengthen. That is why eating more protein is even more critical during the elder years. Whey is the by-product of the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained, that is stimulating of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to make whey digested more rapidly and to have a higher Leucine content. The amino acid Leucine, which is one of the building blocks of protein, is particularly essential for stimulating muscle growth. There are rich sources of Leucine include whey protein, meat, fish and eggs as well as soy protein isolate.

Dietary guideline for American recommended daily allowance (RDA) or protein, which is only 0.8 grams/kilo/per day dietary protein intake. However, for optimizing physical function with Aging, Nowson and O’Connell recommend a protein intake of to 1.0 to 1.3 grams/kg/per day with resistance exercise.

The second essential nutrient is that Vitamin D, which is the primary function, is cell management. Vitamin D is a hormone, and its activation in the body requires a functioning liver and kidneys. Vitamin D of deficiency is related to sarcopenia; but the exact reason why is not very well understand. Vitamin D functions have activated the innate and reduce the adaptive immune systems. The less intake of vitamin D is associated with Infectious diseases.

The primary natural source of the vitamin D is the synthesis of Vitamin D in the skin from per-Vitamin D through a chemical reaction that is dependent on exposure sun (specifically UVB radiation). For eradicate rickets, milk was fortified vitamin D providing a dietary source of the vitamin. One cup serving of milk provides one day request. The RDA for vitamin D was recently revised. New research indicates that people age 1-70 need 15 micrograms per day, and adults over age 70 need 20 micrograms per day. Most of Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)s go down with age, but the DRI for vitamin D goes up.

The omega -3 fatty acids are beneficial for lowering inflammation levels in healthy people. Consumption of omega−3 fatty acids from seafood reduces blood markers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and TNF alpha. A study of women and men eating a diet and a daily 2g of omega-3fish oil supplement combined with resistance training increased muscle strength are compared without fish oil with resistance training women group, due to the omega-3 fatty acid have benefits to anti-inflammatory. Resulting in research has suggested that omega-3 fatty acids might also signal muscle growth directly.

An omega-3 fatty acid most widely available in oily fish, such those the North Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans including mackerel, salmon, sea bass and halibut, oil fish have around seven times than artificial feeding. Eggs produced by fed a diet with a natural resource contain higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Eggs and meat of content with omega -3 of amounted depended on diet feeding. There is no omega -3 fatty acids intake by RDA. The World Health Organization recommends regular fish consumption (1-2 servings per week) as protective against coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. Sounds of the best way to getting enough to intake omega -3 fatty acids. Whereas, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended for the safely consume up to a total of 3 grams per day, as well with no more than 2 grams per day from dietary supplements.


Optimal health of older people depends on maintaining muscle mass. Optimizing diet and nutrition throughout the life cycle is vital in preventing sarcopenia and promoting functional ability in older age. Nutritional science also faces the challenge to design a balanced diet, which includes adequate protein, vitamin D, and omega -3 fatty acids to meet the nutrient requirements of older people.

Source: Open Access Text

In Pictures: Food of Uliassi in Senigallia, Italy

Fine Dining Classical and Innovative Coastal Italian Cuisine

No.12 of the World’s 50 Best Restaurants 2022

Chart: Food and Beverage Prices Are Driving Inflation in the U.S.

Source : Bloomberg

In Pictures: Food of Hof Van Cleve in Kruishoutem, Belgium

Fine Dining Refined Belgian Cuisine

No.36 of the World’s 50 Best Restaurants 2021

In Pictures: Food of Ultraviolet by Paul Pairet in Shanghai, China

Avant-garde French Cuisine with Multi-sensory Dining Experience

No.35 of the World’s 50 Best Restaurants