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Daily Archives: June 23, 2022

Chart: U.S. Manufacturing and Services PMI Dropped Below Market Expectations in June 2022

Source : Bloomberg

Charts: Updated US-China Trade War Tariffs

Source : PIIE

Music Video: The Love You Save

China Achieves ‘Brain-scale’ AI with Latest Supercomputer

Anthony Cuthbertson wrote . . . . . . . . .

Computer scientists in China claim to have run an artificial intelligence program using architecture that is as complex as the human brain.

The AI model, named ‘bagualu’ or ‘alchemist’s pot’, was run on the latest generation of the Sunway supercomputer based at the National Supercomputing Center in the eastern province of Jiangsu.

Researchers described it as a “brain-scale” AI model, which could have applications in fields ranging from self-driving vehicles and computer vision, to chemistry and other scientific discoveries.

The Sunway TaihuLight is officially ranked as the fourth most powerful supercomputer in the world, however the researchers claim the latest demonstration puts it on a par with the US Frontier, which currently tops the list.

The Sunway was ranked as the most powerful computer in the world between 2016 and 2018, according to the Top500 list of leading supercomputers, however Chinese institutions no longer submit performance data to the list. China still has 173 supercomputers listed in the Top500 rankings, more than any other country.

The South China Morning Post reported that the bagualu programme ran with 174 trillion parameters, rivalling the number of synapses in the human brain by some estimates.

The publication reported that the Sunway supercomputer has more than 37 million CPU cores, which is four times as many as the Frontier cupercomputer in the US.

It also has nine petabytes of memory, which is the equivalent of more than 2 million HD movies.

One researcher said that its power gave the latest Sunway the ability to perform parallel computing in a way that mimicked human thinking, claiming it was “like eating while watching television”.

The results were presented at the Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming 2022 conference hosted by the US Association for Computing Machinery in April, but were not reported on at the time.


Source : Yahoo!

Ukrainian Combat Robots Join Fight Against Russian Invasion

David Hambling wrote . . . . . . . . .

Ukrainian forces are getting a new helper, a locally made robotic battlefield scout called GNOM (“Gnome”). The small machine will stealthily reconnoiter Russian positions and provide fire support with a machinegun, according to its maker, a company called Temerland that’s based in Zaporizhia. Gnomes versus ‘Orcs’ may sound like fantasy, but the first robots will enter service next week, the company said in a statement.

While drones seem to be ever-present, remotely operated robots, or Uncrewed Ground Vehicles (UGVs), have so far played little part in this conflict. As the battle lines have stabilized, both forces are increasingly using of portable radio-frequency jammers to knock drones out of the sky which may reduce their impact. GNOM offers an alternative, jam-proof way to spy remotely.

Not much larger than a microwave oven and weighing 50 kg (110 pounds), Temerland says GNOM is highly mobile on four large wheels with 4×4 drive and a quiet 5-horsepower electric motor. The current version is armed with a 7.62mm machinegun. U.S. Army research shows that UGVs make stable firing platforms, allowing a remote gunner to hit targets with considerable accuracy.

While most UGVs are radio-controlled, GNOM spools out a reel of fiber-optic cable behind it. Eduard Trotsenko, CEO and owner of Temerland, told me that the tough, wear-resistant cable provides a broadband link which is immune to radio countermeasures.

“Control of GNOM is possible in the most aggressive environment during the operation of the enemy’s electronic warfare equipment,” says Trotsenko.

Also because the operator is not using a radio, they cannot be detected and targeted by artillery, which may happen to drone operators.

“The operator doesn’t deploy a control station with an antenna, and does not unmask his position,” says Trotsenko. “The cable is not visible, and it also does not create thermal radiation that could be seen by a thermal imager.”

Similar arrangements with fiber optics were used for guided missiles in the early 2000s, notably the French Polyphem and U.S. Army EFOG-M, as well as DARPA’s Close Combat Lethal Recon munition, which developed into the Switchblade. They are also used for some tethered drones and also for remotely operated underwater vehicles, but the sort of electronic warfare seen in Ukraine may see a new demand for fiber-optic control for UGVs.

GNOM’s cable gives it a range of 2,000 meters (1.25 miles); if it is broken the vehicle automatically returns to a predetermined location. While it is usually operated by remote control, GNOM clearly has some onboard intelligence and is capable of autonomous navigation. Previous Temerland designs have included advanced neural network and machine learning hardware and software providing a high degree of autonomy, so the company seems to have experience.

Trotsenko says the machinegun allows GNOM to defend itself and also to provide fire support in situations which might be too dangerous for personnel. He notes that other versions of the GNOM can be used for logistics, intelligence gathering, sabotage and engineering. Temerland has previously shown off a cargo carrier GNOM able to bring ammunition or other supplies to the front line, which can also evacuate casualties with the addition of a special trailer.

A more aggressive GNOM delivers TM62 anti-tank mines: Temerland released a YouTube video showing the robot driving underneath an enemy vehicle and detonating. From underneath, the mines’ 7-kg explosive charge will destroy the heaviest tank, but even getting close should be enough to damage a track and immobilize it. (The Australian Army signed a contract for similar kamikaze ground robots last year).

“Work is underway on mobile platforms for transporting mines,” says Trotsenko. “New designs are being tested.”

Previously the company has announced other possible GNOM variants armed with anti-tank missiles or acting as communications relays or drone carriers.

For the meantime, GNOM will be on scouting duty. Temerland developers say that the vehicle is nearly silent and has a low profile. It can be equipped with a 360-degree camera on a telescoping mast to give a detailed view of the surroundings.

Ukraine fields other remote systems, including a sedan armed with a remote-controlled 14.5mm heavy machinegun, but the GNOM will be the first robotic vehicle on the scene. Russia also has military robots, but so far the only units seen in Ukraine are Uran-6 demining robots; the Uran-9 robotic tank, which performed poorly in Syria, has not shown up in this war.

Tactical robots have long been promoted as a way to reduce casualties and keep soldiers out of the line of fire, while maintaining contact with the enemy. GNOM may prove invaluable for getting a close view of Russian forces – and directing artillery fire on to them – without risking Ukrainian lives.

As the war rages in Ukraine, manufacturers are rolling out large numbers UGVs at the Eurosatory 2022 trade show, some larger and seemingly more sophisticated and more expensive than the GNOM. But the success or otherwise of the small Ukrainian robot in action may do more to shape the future of remote warfare than any of them.


Source : Forbes


Watch video at You Tube (0:28 minute) . . . .

Infographic: Migration of the World’s Millionaires

See large image . . . . . .

Source : Visual Capitalist

为落实全球发展倡议提供智力支持——专家解读《全球发展报告》

记者: 伍岳、成欣、魏玉坤 . . . . . . . . .

  发展是人类社会的永恒主题。2021年9月21日,在第七十六届联合国大会一般性辩论上,习近平主席站在全人类福祉的高度提出全球发展倡议。

  由中国国际发展知识中心撰写的《全球发展报告》20日正式发布。《全球发展报告》是中方提出全球发展倡议以来的首份综合研究报告。这一报告有着怎样的考量?报告内容将会给各国发展提供怎样的借鉴与帮助?

全面分析2030年议程进展与挑战

  报告指出,近7年来,联合国及各国努力推动落实2030年可持续发展议程,取得一定进展。

  “2030年议程落实时间已近一半,这时对现有成绩进行全面回顾,有助于各国对议程落实进度有更为清楚的认知。”中国现代国际关系研究院研究员陈凤英说。

  报告肯定了联合国建立全方位统筹协调机制和各国的积极行动,认为2030年议程在卫生健康、基础设施覆盖范围、生态环境、可持续发展全球伙伴关系等部分目标上取得了积极进展。

  报告也显示,2020年,全球新增贫困人口1.19亿至1.24亿,极端贫困率上升为9.5%,是全球极端贫困人口20多年来首次上升,多年反贫困成果遭遇逆转;全球疫苗鸿沟依然显著。发达经济体超过75%的人口接种了至少一剂新冠疫苗,新兴市场和发展中经济体这一数字约为55%,而低收入国家这一数字仅为8%……

  陈凤英说,2030年议程许多领域已经出现进展停滞甚至倒退,如期实现目标前景不容乐观。“在这样的关键时刻,报告的发布有利于各国厘清思路、稳定信心,更好谋划下一步落实可持续发展目标的路径。”

  中国国际发展知识中心主任赵昌文表示,报告全面分析了当前全球发展面临的时代背景,指出应当更加聚焦发展合作和全球伙伴关系建设,迎接数字变革和绿色转型,为实现共同发展贡献中国方案。

  联合国发展系统驻华协调员常启德赞赏中方适时发布《全球发展报告》,为全球发展事业提供智力支持。他说,距离2030年还有不到8年时间,留给我们的时间已经非常紧迫,“为了我们共同的未来,我们必须行动起来,给全人类一个机会”。

深入阐释全球发展倡议内涵

  报告指出,全球发展倡议秉持以人民为中心的核心理念,坚持发展优先、普惠包容、创新驱动、人与自然和谐共生和行动导向等理念与原则,以减贫、粮食安全、抗疫和疫苗、发展筹资、气候变化和绿色发展、工业化、数字经济及互联互通为重点合作领域,为回答时代课题、建设疫后更美好世界、构建人类命运共同体提出了中国方案。

  “发展是实现人民幸福的关键。以人民为中心的理念指引弥合现今发展鸿沟,让发展成果为民所享,在发展的道路上,一个国家都不能少。”清华大学全球可持续发展研究院执行院长朱旭峰说。

  报告指出,全球发展倡议强调行动导向及与现有机制的协同增效。多国官员和国际学者在接受采访时表示,全球发展倡议与本国、本组织的发展计划不谋而合。

  常启德说,全球发展倡议同2030年议程高度契合,联合国驻华系统愿与中国一道,共同促进全球发展倡议为全球发展作出更大贡献。

  全球发展倡议自提出以来,已有100多国表示支持。2022年1月,“全球发展倡议之友小组”在联合国总部成立,迄今已有50多国加入“之友小组”。

  报告显示,全球发展倡议在有效凝聚全球发展的政治共识、持续加大发展援助资源投入力度、积极搭建项目合作平台、打造发展知识和经验分享平台等方面已经取得了一系列重要的早期收获。

  赵昌文说,发展是人类社会的普遍愿望,是全人类共同价值的重要组成部分,也是全球发展倡议的普遍意义。“从这个意义上来说,中方提出的全球发展倡议适应了世界各国人民的共同愿望,适应了全球发展的共同目标。”

对落实2030年议程提出政策建议

  “共同努力减少贫困”“共同维护全球粮食安全”“共同守护人类卫生健康”“共同促进可持续发展筹资”“共同推动绿色低碳发展”“共同推进发展中国家工业化进程”“共同以数字经济促进繁荣普惠”“共同提升新时代的互联互通”……

  报告立足于中国和世界各国积累的有益经验,从8个方面对落实2030年议程提出政策建议。

  陈凤英说,这8个方面建议紧扣全球发展倡议,阐明了人类当前面临的问题、给出未来路线图,为世界发展贡献了中国智慧。

  “报告将中国的发展经验无私分享给世界。这再次证明,中国并不是独善其身,而是坚持真正的多边主义,秉持开放包容的伙伴精神。”陈凤英说,作为世界发展的重要推动者,中国正以实际行动展现着责任与担当。

  报告指出,全球发展倡议倡导将发展问题置于全球合作议程的中心位置,是中国向国际社会提供的又一重大公共产品,体现了中国作为全球负责任大国的担当,是人类命运共同体理念的重要实践。

  中国国际发展知识中心副主任蒋希蘅表示,中国的发展经验为世界各国发展提供有益借鉴,中国提出的全球发展倡议这一公共产品将为世界向前发展凝聚强大合力。“我们只有往前走,而不能往后退。展望未来,各国应当携手齐心,进一步加快落实2030年议程,共同构建全球发展共同体。”


Source : 新华网


Read more at 中华人民共和国外交部

全球发展报告 . . . . .